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A string of cash was supposed to be equal in value to one tael of pure silver. Local custom allowed the person who put the string together to take a cash or a few from each hundred for his effort one, two, three or even four in some places.

Thus an ounce of silver could exchange for in one city and in the next. In some places in the North of China short of currency the custom counted one cash as two and fewer than cash would be exchanged for an ounce of silver.

A string of cash weighed over ten pounds and was generally carried over the shoulder. Paper money equivalents known as flying cash sometimes showed pictures of the appropriate number of cash coins strung together.

Minting was definitively ended in with the establishment of the Tang dynasty. Wu Zhu cash coins were cast from BC to AD having a span of years, which is the longest for any coin in the history of the world.

The Koreans , [27] Japanese , [28] Ryukyuans , [29] and Vietnamese [30] [31] all cast their own copper cash in the latter part of the second millennium similar to those used by China.

Chinese cash coins were usually made from copper-alloys throughout most of Chinese history, before they were typically made from bronze and from onwards they were mostly made from brass.

Chinese historian Peng Xinwei stated that in the year traditional cast copper-alloy cash coins only made up The last Chinese cash coins were struck, not cast, during the reigns of the Qing Guangxu and Xuantong Emperors shortly before the fall of the Empire in , though even after the fall of the Qing dynasty production briefly continued under the Republic of China.

Vietnamese cash continued to be cast up until the early s. The last Chinese cash coins in Indonesia circulated in Bali until and are still used for most Hindu rituals today.

These coins are: [44] [45]. The earliest standard denominations of cash coins were theoretically based on the weight of the coin and were as follows:.

Coins of the Qing Dynasty — generally carried the era name of the emperor and tongbao on the obverse and the mint location where the coins were cast in Manchu and Chinese on the reverse.

In Imperial China cash coins were used for fortune-telling , this would be done by first lighting incense to the effigy of a Chinese deity , and then placing 3 cash coins into a tortoise shell.

The process involved the fortune teller counting how many coins lay on their obverse or reverse sides, and how these coins scratched the shell, this process was repeated 3 times.

Contemporary Chinese intelligentsia found the usage of cash coins for fortune-telling to be superior than any other methods. Though in general any cash coin could be used in traditional Chinese medicine but the Kai Yuan Tong Bao was most preferred, and preferences were given for some specific coins for certain ailments E.

One contemporary Russian account from a battle with the Tlingits in states "bullets were useless against the Tlingit armour", however this would've more likely be attributed to the inaccuracy of contemporary Russian smoothbore muskets than the body armour and the Chinese cash coins sewn into the Tlingit armour.

Other than for military purposes the Tlingit used Chinese cash coins on ceremonial robes. Because the strings were often accepted without being checked for damaged coins and coins of inferior quality and copper-alloys these strings would eventually be accepted based on their nominal value rather than their weight, this system is comparable to that of a fiat currency.

Although Chinese cash coins kept their round shape with a square hole from the Warring States period until the early years of the Republic of China, under the various regimes that ruled during the long history of China the square hole in the middle experienced only minor modifications such as being slightly bigger, smaller, more elongated, shaped incorrectly, or sometimes being filled with a bit of excess metal left over from the casting process.

If the shape of these holes were only hexagonal then they were referred to as "turtle shell holes", in some occidental sources they may be called "star holes" because they resemble stars.

Under Wang Mang 's Xin dynasty other than cash coins with "flower holes" also spade money with "flower holes" were cast.

The practice of creating cash coins with "flower holes" and "turtle shell holes" was also adopted by Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, however cash coins with these features are extremely rare in these countries despite using the same production techniques which further indicates that their addition was wholly intentional.

Red cash coins are also generally marked by their rather crude craftsmanship when compared to the cash coins of China proper. The edges of these coins are often not filed completely and the casting technique is often inaccurate or the inscriptions on them seemed deformed.

At the introduction of red cash system in Southern Xinjiang in , the exchange rate of standard cash or "yellow cash" and "red cash" was set at 10 standard cash coins were worth 1 "red cash coin".

During two or three subsequent years this exchange rate was decreased to When used in the Northern or Eastern circuits of Xinjiang, the "red cash coins" were considered equal in value as the standard cash coins that circulated there.

During most of their history the cast cash coins of China were predominantly made from bronze or other copper-alloys such as brass.

In some cases the usage of certain types of materials to produce cash coins are only more recently discovered due to the lack of historical records mentioning them.

Zhongguo Qianbi No. Lead cash coins have only been produced at a few times in the monetary history of china, mainly during the Five dynasties and Ten kingdoms period.

This table includes is what is generally known to have been the case today, but as future archaeological research might probably reveal that other periods of Chinese history might used alternative materials to produce cash coins, at least in locally in some areas.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Chinese cash disambiguation. Replicas of various ancient to 19th century cast cash coins in various metals found in China, Korea and Japan.

See also: Cash currency. See also: Mother coin. Main article: List of Chinese cash coins by inscription. See also: Chinese numismatic charm and Cash coins in art.

Main article: String of cash coins currency unit. Main article: Hongqian. China portal Money portal Numismatics portal. Springer Link. Retrieved Harvard University archive.

Admin for Chinesecoins. Retrieved 6 July National Institute of Korean History. Retrieved 29 September Retrieved: 29 June Retrieved 29 June Retrieved 1 July Series Chinese Provinces that issued machine struck coins, from s to s.

Last updated: 10 June Retrieved 9 April Chinese Currency. Revised and edited by Virgil Hancock. Retrieved: 14 June By Ulrich Theobald Chinaknowledge.

Retrieved 13 February Retrieved 22 August Retrieved: 01 September Retrieved 1 September Retrieved 2 September Marilyn Shea University of Maine at Farmington.

March Retrieved 9 June Retrieved: 06 June Retrieved 23 July Early Japanese Coins. New Generation Publishing. Archived from the original on 4 August Allan Barker.

Political economy and political process in s China. Harvard University Press , Cambridge , Massachusetts. A reference list of years of Chinese coinage.

Howard A. Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 9 March Retrieved 8 March News Singapore. Retrieved: 13 July Cast Chinese Coins. Trafford , United Kingdom : Trafford Publishing.

Durst, New York First published Harvard University Press. Cambridge Retrieved: 02 July Traditional Methods of Fortune-Telling".

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